The Graham site is a located adjacent to the Crepeele site towards the western end of the Crepeele locale. The Graham site was initially designated as a separate site early in the testing of the Crepeele locale due to what appeared to be a distinction between Early and Late Woodland ceramics. Subsequent testing has shown that this distinction was premature and that the cultural mosaic represented in the western section of the Crepeele locale may not readily separate in this manner. However, due to the records management that was already in place, the original separate designations have been retained.
Ground cover is a mosaic of aspen poplar groves and patches of mesic grass prairie. Excavation profiles indicate that this has been the situation since early precontact times, although as local climatic conditions change (primarily rainfall), the relative size of these areas and where they may have occurred also changed. The soil is aeolian sand sheet derived from delta outwash deposits along the western edge of glacial Lake Hind. The present topography is a variable dune landscape reworked by aeolian activity that creates a mosaic of microhabitats. These include forested patches in the lee of sand dunes grassland on the southern and western exposures and small damp lowlands that support balsam poplar, willows, red osier dogwood, high-bush cranberry and water birch. There is no permanent water source in the area although a small seasonal stream meanders through a damp lowland along the eastern margin of the Crepeele locale.
Excavations at the Graham site took place from 2004 to 2008. Analyses of the recoveries shows that, with two exceptions, all of the occupations that have been tested produced bison foetal bone. The presence of foetal bison is a strong indicator of wintering occupations...The absence of foetal in some area does not necessarily indicate warm season occupations since these excavation series are small and the absence could be due to sample error or perthotaxic factors, such as scavenging of the fragile bone by dogs or other carnivores.
From this evidence the Graham site has been interpreted as being primarily a wintering area. This is consistent with the lack of surface water (snow would serve as a substitute in winter) and the abundance of wood for fuel – a critical requirement for winter occupation. Cultural occupations date from Mortlach circa 250 B.P to woodland circa 580 B.P.
Scope and Content
Sub-series has been divided into sub sub series including: Graham 2004, Graham 2005, Graham 2006 and Graham 2008